PREP: For a quicker prep, give the onion and pepper a quick coarse chop and add along with the garlic cloves to a food processor and pulse to chop.
VEGGIES: Add olive oil to a large cast iron skillet (or set to sauté in the Instant Pot) and heat to high. Add in the diced onion, pepper, and garlic. Cook, stirring occasionally until softened, about 7-9 minutes. Add in all the seasonings (the paprika, garlic powder, cumin, and oregano) and sauté for 1 minute or until fragrant. Use a spatula to scrape every bit of this mixture into the pan.
ADD BEANS AND COOK: Rinse the beans in a strainer and pick through them, discarding any shriveled beans, debris or rocks. Add the rinsed beans, chicken or vegetable stock, and water to the pan. Add in the chipotle peppers in adobo sauce and the bay leaf. Finally, season (to taste) with salt and pepper. (I add 2 teaspoons fine sea salt and 1/2 teaspoon pepper, but add to preference.) Stir everything together, cover and cook on high for 7-9 hours in the slow cooker or until beans are very tender (this is 8 hours in my crockpot). INSTANT POT: Seal the instant pot, turn the valve to seal, and cook on manual mode for 45 minutes (it takes about 15-20 minutes to get up to pressure). Once finished, allow for a natural release for 25 minutes (I recommend setting a timer so you don't forget!) before releasing the rest of the pressure manually.
FINISHING: Remove the lid of the pressure cooker or slow cooker and taste the beans. To adjust seasonings, I typically add another 1 teaspoon of fine sea salt here (really just depends on how salty the chicken/vegetable stock used is; add slowly until flavors sing). Remove chipotle peppers (they will continue to increase in heat and make the beans hotter if they are left in) and remove bay leaf and discard. Add chopped cilantro if desired and squeeze in fresh lime; stir through. Serve as a side dish or use in another recipe. The beans will continue to thicken as they sit and become more flavorful as they're stored in the fridge overnight. I store the beans in the liquid and drain as needed to use in other recipes.
Note 1: If you're worried about heat, add just the peppers and remove them promptly after beans have cooked. Check out the post for how to save/store the rest of the can of chipotles!